It is a disease of the skin that includes RED and SCALY patches, especially on SCALP, KNEES, TRUNK, and ELBOWS. It occurs due to systemic inflammation.

Types of psoriasis:

Several types of Psoriasis are available. Some of them are discussed below:

Plaque psoriasis:

It is the most common type as eighty to ninety percent of people have this type of Psoriasis. It occurs usually at light skin that appears to be inflamed lesions of red color that are covered with silvery and white scales. While on dark skin these patches appear as purple or brown that has grey scaling. Affected areas are usually the back, knees, scalp, and elbows.

Inverse Psoriasis:

This type is developed in the skin fold and it usually affects:

  • The groin
  • Areas under the breast
  • Armpits
  • Around the genitals
  • Around the buttocks

This type of Psoriasis doesn’t develop scales like plaque psoriasis. It has simple lesions that are smooth and shiny. If you rub such type of psoriasis it can make it worst as the lesions lie under the skin fold and other tender areas. Sweating can also make it worst. This type is mostly found in overweight people or people with deep skin folds.

Erythrodermic psoriasis:

This type develops large inflammation areas on the skin. It is a rare type of psoriasis as it is found only in 2.25 percent of people. Inflammation also causes itching, skin shedding, and pain in the large infected areas.

It may also disturb the chemical balance of the body. This will cause the loss of protein and essential fluid from the body that leads to serious complications involving heart failure and pneumonia.

EDEMA and FLUID RETENTION can occur due to swelling on the ankles. Temperature is difficult to regulate so shivering can occur. Complications associated with this type are dangerous. If you have severe symptoms you should immediately visit your doctor. If symptoms are severe, you have to spend time in hospital.

Guttate psoriasis:

This type is more common in children and teenagers as compared to adults. Around thirty percent of patients develop guttate psoriasis. Patches are small and have spots on them. In this type spots that appeared are not crusty and thick as compared to the above two types. Conditions that increase the risk of this type are:

  • Stress
  • Upper respiratory infections
  • Tonsillitis
  • Wounds on the skin
  • Streptococcal infections
  • Medications such as antimalarials, beta-blockers, and lithium.

It can settle itself without any specific therapy. Guttate psoriasis once recovered will never come back but it may appear in the form of plaque psoriasis.

Pustular psoriasis:

It is the rare form of psoriasis that looks like white PUSTULES or BLISTERS OF PUS that are surrounded by the inflammation of the skin. It usually affects particular parts of the body such as feet or hands. Pustular psoriasis is not an infection and it is not contagious as well. It is followed by a certain cycle and gradually involves the discoloration of the skin. Psoriasis can affect any part of the body.

Causes and triggers of psoriasis: (1)

The clear cause of psoriasis is unknown yet but researchers think it is an autoimmune disease. In this disease immune system of our body attacks the T-cells that help in protecting the body against foreign invaders. Triggers can lead the immune system to hit the wrong cells with the instructions of genes. T-cell is misguided by the gene as if it is fighting with the infectious agents to heal the wound. Chemicals are produced in this reaction that causes inflammation.

In this condition, skin cells grow rapidly due to autoimmune activity. Almost one month is required to restore the skin cells. But in psoriasis patients, it only took three or four days to complete the process. Triggers usually vary from patient to patient but some common triggers are:

  • Injuries on the skin
  • Changes in hormones
  • Anxiety or stress
  • Infections

Medications that stimulate the flare of psoriasis are:

  • Lithium
  • Quinidine
  • Indomethacin
  • Antimalarials

Sign and symptoms of psoriasis: (2)

Symptoms of psoriasis vary from one patient to another. Common signs and symptoms of psoriasis are:

  • Red patches appeared on the skin that is covered with silver scales.
  • Tiny scaling areas especially in children
  • Dry and cracked area of skin that may bleed sometimes or causes itching
  • Burning and soreness on the infected area
  • Thick and ridged nails
  • Joint become swollen and stiff

Treatment of psoriasis:

Treatment of psoriasis has the goal of stopping cells to grow rapidly. Treatment involves topical, light therapy, oral, or injected medications.

Topical therapy:

Topical therapy includes the following:


They are recommended for mild to moderate types of psoriasis. They are available in many forms such as sprays, creams, shampoos, gels, ointments, and many more. Drugs include:

  • Triamcinolone
  • Clobetasol

Vitamin D analogue:

Vitamin D usually slows the growth of skin cells. And it involves calcitriol and calcipotriene that help to slow the progression of skin cells. It can be used alone or in combination with steroids.


It is available in the form of gel and is recommended to use two times a day. Drugs include Tazarotene. This medication has side effects and should be avoided during pregnancy or breastfeeding. It should be also avoided if you intend to become pregnant

Calcineurin inhibitors:

This class involves the following drugs:

  • Tacrolimus
  • Pimecrolimus

They help to reduce the inflammation around the eye where other medications might cause irritation and other harmful effects. They are contraindicated if you are pregnant or breastfeeding or you wish to become pregnant.

Salicylic acid:

To reduce scalp psoriasis, shampoos and other solutions are recommended. They contain salicylic acid that helps to treat psoriasis. It can be given alone or in combination with other medications.

Coal tar:

Coal tar is used for reducing inflammation, itching, and scaling. It is available in many forms such as oil, shampoo, and creams. They have a strong odor and leave messy stains on the bed and clothing. It should be avoided in breastfeeding and pregnant women.