Lung cancer affects the tissue lining of the lungs and damages the lung that causes difficulty in breathing and leads to death in both men and women. Smoking is the most common cause of developing lung cancer that smokers and non-smokers both.

Types of lung cancer. (1)

Two types of lung cancer are common that are small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Carcinoid is the least common type of lung cancer.

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC):

Small cell lung cancer further consists of two types:

  • Small cell carcinoma
  • Mixed/large/combined cell carcinoma

The name of these types is suggested according to the type and appearance of the cells when viewed under a microscope. SCLS is caused due to heavy smoking and it can be only treated with chemotherapy.

Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC):

It is the most common type of lung cancer as eighty percent of patients are suffering from non-small cell lung cancer. This type easily grows and slowly spread to other parts of the body as compared to small cell lung cancer. Further types of non-small cell lung cancer are:

  • Adenocarcinoma: it is the kind of non-small cell lung cancer that is usually found in the outer region of the lungs. The growth of adenocarcinoma develops in epithelial tissues. The function of epithelial tissues is to form cavities surfaces of body glands.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: it is also the type of NSCLC and it is present in the mid of the lungs near the air tube or bronchus.
  • Large cell carcinoma: this type can be found in any part of the lung and it grows and spread more quickly as compared to the above-mentioned types.

All types mentioned are very common and found in many lung cancer patients. When the tumor is observed under a microscope it may reveal more subtypes of lung cancer and more specific information.

Signs and symptoms of lung cancer:

Signs and symptoms of lung cancer appear in the later stage of lung cancer. The lung cancer spreads and grows without causing any specific pain or symptoms. Symptoms of lung cancer vary from patient to patient depending upon the type of lung cancer and the condition of the patient. Some common signs and symptoms of lung cancer include:

  • Persistent caught that get worsen with the time.
  • Hoarseness
  • Constant pain in the chest
  • Wheezing
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Several infections in the lungs such as BRONCHITIS and PNEUMONIA.
  • Coughing with blood.

More symptoms are associated with lung cancer but they are not related to the lungs or airways. When such symptoms appear you should check to rule out the condition because lung cancer shows no early signs and symptoms. Some common symptoms may include:

  • Loss of weight
  • Loss of appetite
  • Pain in bone or fractures
  • Headache
  • Blood clots

If you notice any one of the above-mentioned signs and symptoms you should visit your doctor and perform all the tests he recommended to you. Some people got misdiagnosed due to similar signs and symptoms to other conditions like cold, pneumonia, or COVID-19.

What are the causes of lung cancer?

One of the most common causes of lung cancer is smoking. Lung cancer takes place when cells present in the lungs suddenly changes or mutate. Mutation can happen due to various factors. Mostly mutation occurs when you breathe in a toxic or dangerous atmosphere. You are at a higher risk of developing lung cancer if you are exposed to dangerous chemicals for a longer period of years. Consult your doctor if you have been exposed to the chemicals or substances mentioned below to protect your lungs and health timely.


It is the number one reason for lung cancer. About ninety percent of patients with lung cancer are due to smoking. Cancer-causing substances are present in the smoke of cigarettes. If you want to avoid the risk of lung cancer you should quit smoking as soon as possible. If anyone is a former smoker risk is somehow low but not completely vanished as you can still develop lung cancer. If you breathe in secondhand smoke you are more likely to get lung cancer.


Radon direction is the second most common factor of developing lung cancer. This gas is naturally present in the soil. It comes along the soil and penetrates the small CRACKS and GAPS. Out of fifteen houses in the United States, one house has radon exposure. When radon is combined with the smoke of a cigarette risk of developing lung cancer is increased to the next level.

Hazardous chemicals:

Substances such as:

  • Asbestos
  • Uranium
  • Cadmium
  • Nickel
  • Petroleum
  • Arsenic

Are very dangerous and they can develop lung cancer.


Genetic factors can also be involved in developing lung cancer. If your family member has lung cancer you are also at risk.

Treatment for lung cancer by stage: (2)

Non-small cell lung cancer:

Early-stage 1 or 2: it is usually treated with surgery in which cancer and nearby infected lymph nodes is removed. If you don’t want surgery you can go with radiation therapy. Usually chemotherapy is given after surgery to stop it from coming back.

Locally advances stage 3: two types of combinations are used in this stage such as

  • Chemotherapy with radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy with surgery

Sometimes, immunotherapy drugs are also recommended to patients. Treatment is chosen by observing the area of lung cancer and the number of lymph nodes infected with lung cancer. Targeted therapy is recommended sometimes to slow the extent of lung cancer.

Advanced stage of lung cancer stage 4:

Palliative drug treatment is recommended in the last stage that includes immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and chemotherapy. In more severe cases palliative and radiation is given in combination.

Small cell lung cancer treatment

Limited stage:

Surgery is not recommended whereas radiation and chemo is given in combination

Extensive stage:

This stage is treated with palliative therapy that includes chemotherapy with immunotherapy. Palliative treatment is given to the part of cancer and also to other body parts where cancer has spread.